Lompoc /lɒmpoʊk/ lom-pohk is a city in Santa Barbara County, California, United States. The city was incorporated in 1888. The population was 42,434 at the 2010 census, up from 41,103 at the 2000 census.
Prior to the European settlements, the area around Lompoc was inhabited by the Chumash. The name of the city is derived from a Chumash word "Lum Poc" that means "stagnant waters" or "lagoon." The Spanish called it "lumpoco." In 1837, the Mexican government granted the land around Lompoc as the Rancho Lompoc land grant. After the United States gained control of California in the Mexican-American War, the valley was acquired by Thomas Diblee, Albert Diblee and William Welles Hollister, the latter of whom sold his portion to the Lompoc Valley Land Company. It is from that portion that the present-day Lompoc was established as a temperance colony. The town was originally intended to be called New Vineland, modeled after the temperance colony in New Jersey.
Prior to the Spanish conquest, the area around Lompoc was inhabited by the Chumash tribe. Mission La Purísima Concepción was established in 1787, near what is now the Southern edge of the city of Lompoc. After an earthquake destroyed the mission in 1812, it was relocated to its present location 1 mile (1.6 km) northeast of the present city. In 1821, Mexico became independent from Spain, and subsequently secularized the California missions in 1833. Mission La Purísima gradually fell into ruins.