Vanceboro is a town in Craven County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 849 at the 2008 census. Originally called Swift Creek, residents renamed the town for Zebulon B. Vance after he made a visit during his 1876 campaign for Governor. It is part of the New Bern, North Carolina Micropolitan Statistical Area.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.7 square miles (4.5 km²), all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 898 people, 385 households, and 262 families residing in the town. The population density was 521.2 inhabitants per square mile (201.6/km²). There were 434 housing units at an average density of 251.9 per square mile (97.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 73.16% White, 24.16% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.56% from other races, and 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.89% of the population.