Chincoteague (pronounced /ˌʃɪŋkətiːɡ/ or /ʃɪŋkətiːɡ/) is a town on Chincoteague Island in Accomack County, Virginia, United States. The population was 4,317 at the 2000 census. The town is perhaps best known for the Chincoteague Ponies, although these are not actually on the island of Chincoteague but on nearby Assateague Island. These ponies and the annual Pony Penning Day are the subject of Marguerite Henry's 1947 children's book Misty of Chincoteague. This was made into the 1961 family film Misty, which was filmed on location.
Chincoteague is located at 37°56′5″N 75°22′4″W / 37.93472°N 75.36778°W / 37.93472; -75.36778 (37.934673, -75.367805). According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.1 square miles (96.0 km²), of which, 9.6 square miles (24.9 km²) of it is land and 27.4 square miles (71.1 km²) of it (74.02%) is water.
1650 marks the first land grant issued on Chincoteague Island for 1,500 acres (6.1 km2). Daniel Jenifer became the first English landowner. In 1671, settlers came to the Island and by 1672, there were large farms by Bishops, Bowdens, Jesters and Tarrs. By 1838, there were 36 houses on the island and in 1861, the island voted 132-2 not to secede from the Union and against slavery. The town saw minor action in the war via the Battle of Cockle Creek fought in the bay in 1861