Alachua is a city in Alachua County, Florida, United States. According to 2006 U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the city's population was 7,554. The city is part of the Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is home to 243,985 people.
Alachua was established in 1884 on a railroad line, after the railroad had bypassed nearby Newnansville. Alachua got a post office in 1887 and was incorporated as a city on 12 April 1905, at which time it had a population of 526 people.
Alachua is located at 29°46′45″N 82°28′47″W / 29.77917°N 82.47972°W / 29.77917; -82.47972 (29.779286, -82.479849). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.05 square miles (75.2 km2). 28.90 square miles (74.9 km2) of it is land and 0.15 square miles (0.4 km2) of it (0.52%) is water.