Arthur is a village in Douglas County and Moultrie County in Illinois; Arthur's primary street, Vine Street, is the county line. The population was 2,288 at the 2010 census. The Arthur area is home to the largest and oldest Amish community in Illinois, which was founded in the 1860s.
In 1877 the population was approximately 300 persons, with plans being made to incorporate as a village. This occurred in April in the County Court House in Moultrie County.
The first village election was held on June 12, 1877 and C.G. McComb, Matt Hunsaker, W.H. Reeder, H.C. Jones, J.W. Sears, and Nick Thompson were elected trustees, and J.W. Barrum, clerk.