Steeleville is a village in Randolph County, Illinois, United States. The population was 2,077 at the 2000 census.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km²), of which, 1.3 square miles (3.4 km²) of it is land and 0.76% is water. Steeleville is located adjacent to Mary's River, a direct tributary of the Mississippi River.
In the early 19th century, the Lusk's Ferry Road ran through what is now Steeleville. This important, early road connected Fort Kaskaskia with Lusk's Ferry on the Ohio River. The road headed northeast out of Kaskaskia toward what is now Steeleville to make its crossing of Mary's River, before heading east and southeast toward Lusk's Ferry.