Louisburg is a city in Miami County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 4,315.
Prior to the American Civil War, the land of what is now called Louisburg was part of that reserved for members of various tribes of Native Americans that were ceding their lands in Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. Settling there were the Peoria, Wea, Piankeshaw, and Kaskaskia tribes which together eventually became the Confederated Tribe of Peoria. Traders and missionaries often visited the area, and by 1854 settlers began moving nearby, establishing homes. Upon the organization of the state of Kansas in 1861, the Confederated Tribes were being charged with taxes, and the new state laws conflicted with their own. By 1866, following the American Civil War, the government moved the Confederated Tribe of Peoria to Oklahoma, and the land they once occupied was sold to settlers. A community of homes resulted by 1867, and was called St. Louis. Soon, it was often referred to as New St. Louis or Little St. Louis as an effort to distinguish it from St. Louis, Missouri located on the banks of the Mississippi River. From 1868 to 1870 the settlement of Little St. Louis grew to include businesses and churches, and a railroad depot was to be completed. Because the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad (MKT Railroad) would be coming to serve the community, and to avoid additional confusion, Little St. Louis was renamed Louisburg in 1870. The railroad depot was completed by 1871, and Louisburg's first school opened the same year. The community had some disorder during this time. As a town near the border, there remained conflicts between Kansas Jayhawkers and Missouri Raiders. In addition, the railroad tracks running through the community divided it into north and south areas. Around 1875, many businesses and homes were moved from north of the railroad to the south, and formed what was to become downtown Louisburg. Louisburg was incorporated as a city of the third class November 3, 1882, and held its first city election two weeks later on November 17, 1882. The population was listed as 400, and 141 of those residents voted in the first election. In the early 1900s Louisburg's downtown had a variety of businesses such as retail stores, supply stores, livery stables, a hotel, and large nurseries. By 1910 the population was 603, and Louisburg was known as a good supply town for agricultural districts. By the 1920s, the town also had a gas station, as automobile ownership and traffic through town had increased. By the late 1950s the MKT Railroad ended its service to Louisburg, but because K-68 went through town and US Highway 69 and K-68 intersected near town, growth continued.
The The Little Round House was originally an addition to a front porch for a Victorian-style house in the nearby town of Paola, and was called such because it was indeed round in shape. Because of increased truck traffic from Missouri on K-68 through town, Louisburg was contacted by the State of Kansas about needing an inspection station. As a solution, the Little Round House was moved to Louisburg in the 1930s to serve as a border checkpoint office. As years passed, the Little Round House became a home to a variety of small businesses, and had been used as temporary housing during World War II. The shape and size aided in it becoming a landmark to Louisburg. In 2005, The Little Round House was moved from its original location to the Louisburg City Lake, and has been restored by the community due to its historical value to the town.