Augusta is a city in Butler County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 9,274.
The confluence of the Whitewater River and the Walnut River was originally inhabited by Native Americans (primarily the Osage), who found the land ideal for hunting and fishing. In 1868 C. N. James settled in the area and built a log house to serve also as a general store and trading post. He paid $40.00 for the land title from the U.S Land Office and named the new settlement after his wife, Augusta James. C. N. James' original log cabin still exists at its original location.
In 1877, the Florence, El Dorado, and Walnut Valley Railroad Company built a branch line from Florence to El Dorado. In 1881 it was extended to Douglass, and later to Arkansas City. The rail line was leased and operated by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. Service from Florence to El Dorado was abandoned in 1942. The original branch line connected Florence, Burns, De Graff, El Dorado, Augusta, Douglass, Rock, Akron, Winfield, Arkansas City.