Florence is a city in Marion County, Kansas, United States. The city was named after the daughter of former Kansas Governor Samuel J. Crawford. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 465.
For millennia, the land that is currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1806, Zebulon Pike led the Pike expedition westward from St Louis, Missouri, of which part of their journey followed the Cottonwood River through Marion County near the current towns of Florence, Marion, Durham. In 1855, Marion County, Kansas, where Florence is located, was founded.
The first settlers in Marion County located on Doyle Creek, near the present site of Florence. They were Moses Shane, who came in 1858, and whose death the next year was the first in the county; Patrick Doyle, in 1859, for whom Doyle Creek and Township were named, and a family by the name of Welsh, in which occurred the first birth in the county in August 1859.