Rossville is a city in Shawnee County, Kansas, United States. The population was 1,014 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Topeka, Kansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.
In 1848, William W. Ross and some pioneers settled near the St. Marys Catholic Mission, now present- day St. Marys, Kansas. The pioneers came on the California and Oregon road. But a few entered the Potawatomi Indian Reservation and settled by what Indians called Metsepa (cross). They called it this because the creek's junction with the Kansas River resembled a cross. Soon after their arrival Francis Bergeon, Anthony Tacier, and Lawton Nasseau built a bridge across the creek. William Dyer built a small log trading post. It was the first trading post in the township. The first school in the township was taught by Mrs. Gibson Metty. In a little log cabin near the creek about 15 student, half white and half Indian were the first to attend. Dr. Robert S. Gabby was the first to be appointed as Justice of the Peace. He was also the first physician. These pioneers were about to become the first citizens of Rossville.
By the provision of the treaty of 1861, the Indians moved to the new reservation in Jackson County. At this time there were a few shanties and a small farm. The people living here were Anthony Navarre, Sonaneque, his wife, James Doheny, and Lewis Bellaire, and their families. Anthony Navarre decided to purchase 100 acres (0.40 km2) of this land. He was the original proprietor. The town site was surveyed by J.B. Whittaker. Edna was originally selected as the town's name, but later it was renamed to Rossville after William W. Ross. In June 1881, Rossville was issued as a city of the third class. The first city election was held on June, 27th, 1881. H.H. Miller was elected the first mayor of Rossville. A new post office building was built in July 1881. A.C. Sherman was the first postmaster. The steam mills were operated by the Mulvane Brothers. It had a capacity of seventy-four barrels a day. The Maxwell House was the first hotel, it was owned by S.B. Maxwell. The town in 1882 had five general stores: C.W Higgenbotham's, Kerr & Allen, Peter Shearer, Isaac Larrance, and A. Urbansky's branch store. The Sherman Brothers owned the first hardware store and J.T. Olmstead was the very first shoemaker. George E. Cooke, Richard Mason, and W.S. Templin were the blacksmith's in 1882. George Bushor was the harness-maker. The physician of the town was Dr. Gabbey. W. Sherman was the attorney at law. The Kansas Valley Times was owned and edited by Leroy Sedgwick. He moved the Times from St. Marys to Rossville in 1879. He stayed in Rossville until he moved to Topeka in 1882.