Whitewater is a city in Butler County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 718.
In 1887, the Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska Railway built a branch line north-south from Herington through Whitewater to Caldwell. It foreclosed in 1891 and taken over by Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, which shut down in 1980 and reorganized as Oklahoma, Kansas and Texas Railroad, merged in 1988 with Missouri Pacific Railroad, merged in 1997 with Union Pacific Railroad. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Rock Island".
Whitewater was originally intended to be several miles to the east. Between 1885 and 1888, several buildings were moved to the present location on the Whitewater River after the Missouri Pacific railroad came through the area. The city was established where the Missouri Pacific and Rock Island railroads intersected.