Williamsburg is a city in and the county seat of Whitley County, Kentucky, United States. The population was 5,143 at the 2000 census. The city was founded in 1818 and named after William Whitley. The Cumberland River flows through the city.
Williamsburg was first known as the Spring Ford after a nearby ford crossing the Cumberland River. The city was officially formed when Samuel Cox donated the land for the courthouse in 1818. The town was then known at Whitley Courthouse. The town's initial growth was fueled by three fresh water springs in the area and later by coal and lumber industries. At its peak the city of Williamsburg boasted more millionaires per capita than any other city in the nation.
Williamsburg is located at 36°44′12″N 84°09′53″W / 36.736576°N 84.164713°W / 36.736576; -84.164713, within the Eastern Mountain Coal Fields and the Appalachian Plateau regions. It rests along the I-75 corridor at exits 11 and 15. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles (12.4 km²). 4.7 square miles (12.1 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km²) of it (2.10%) is water.