Shelbyville is a city in Shelby County, Missouri, United States. The population was 552 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Shelby County.
Shelbyville is located at 39°48′26″N 92°2′28″W / 39.80722°N 92.04111°W / 39.80722; -92.04111 (39.807187, -92.041154). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.1 km²), of which, 0.8 square miles (2.0 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (4.88%) is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 552 people, 262 households, and 164 families residing in the city. The population density was 881.2 people per square mile (342.0/km²). There were 291 housing units at an average density of 376.0 per square mile (145.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.21% White, 0.44% African American, 0.73% Asian, 0.29% from other races, and 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.47% of the population.