Madison is a city in Monroe County, Missouri, United States. The population was 586 at the 2000 census.
Madison is located at 39°28′24″N 92°12′44″W / 39.47333°N 92.21222°W / 39.47333; -92.21222 (39.473197, -92.212095).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.4 square miles (1.2 km²), all of it land. Madison was always a small town, but due to a fire set by a lumber company, it burned much of the town down. After this, many moved out. Today, a Caseys General Store rests where the lumber company once did. Madison used to carry a pizza place, a bowling alley, a drug store, a jail, and much more. In the mid-to-late 19th century a man that went by the name Aterbury, who was a banker, built three large houses on the north end of town. One for him, and the other two for his relatives. Sadly, one burnt to the ground. Two still remain, including the one that Mr. Aterbury lived in himself, which is located on North Street; it is the biggest house in Madison.