Philadelphia is a city in and the county seat of Neshoba County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 7,303 at the 2000 census.
Philadelphia is incorporated as a municipality and given its current name in 1903, two years before the railroad brought new opportunities and prosperity to the newly renamed town. The history of the town and its influences- social, political and economic- can still be seen in the many points of interest within and beyond the city limits, from the large ceremonial Indian mound and cave at Nanih Waiya to the still thriving Williams Brothers Store, a true old-fashioned general store founded in 1907 and featured in National Geographic in 1939 as a source of anything from “needles to horse collars”, and still offering everything from bridles, butter and boots to flour, feed and fashion.
Many thousands of years ago groups known as Paleo-Indians lived in what today is referred to as the American South. Native American Choctaw ancestors were likely part of the Mississippian culture in the Mississippi river valley and settled the area. After a series of treaties signed between the Choctaw Nation and the United States, the Choctaws would migrate or become U.S. citizens. The 1830 treaty that would sign away the remaining traditional homeland to the United States was called the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. The treaty represented one of the largest transfers of land that was signed between the U.S. Government and Native Americans without being instigated by warfare.