Nelson is a city in Nuckolls County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 587 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Nuckolls County.
The city was named as the county seat in 1872, and its position survived a challenge by Superior in 1889. Nelson's population reached a high of 1,000 in 1900, but has since declined gradually.
Nelson is located at 40°12′07″N 98°04′00″W / 40.202000°N 98.066750°W / 40.202000; -98.066750 (40.202000, -98.066750).