Petersburg is a village in Boone County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 374 at the 2000 census. Petersburg is the site of a memorial to Logan Fontenelle, an Omaha chief who was killed near there in a skirmish with Brulé and Arapaho in 1855.
Petersburg is located at 41°51′10″N 98°4′48″W / 41.85278°N 98.08°W / 41.85278; -98.08 (41.852867, -98.080131).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.4 square miles (1.0 km²), all of it land.