United Israel Appeal (UIA), established in 1927, is one of the founders and a beneficiary of the United Jewish Appeal Federation Campaign of United Jewish Communities, now the major fund-raising organization for the overseas philanthropic endeavors of the American Jewish community. UIA receives annual funds raised by local community federations throughout the United States. It also received nearly all of the receipts of various special campaigns to meet the extraordinary needs of the vastly increased numbers of humanitarian migrants who have left the Soviet Union and Ethiopia since 1989. The Jewish Agency for Israel (JAFI) is UIA's operating agent for programs in Israel. JAFI has sole responsibility for immigration to Israel and assists in the initial absorption of humanitarian migrants in Israel.