Troy is a town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 2,145 at the 2010 census. It is situated at the base of Mount Monadnock.
The town center village, where 1,221 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Troy census-designated place (CDP), and is located along New Hampshire Route 12. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Troy Village Historic District.
Settled in 1762, by 1815 the community had grown so much that it sought its own incorporation. It was set off from Marlborough that year, and included parts of Fitzwilliam, Swanzey and Richmond. A prominent citizen and friend of Governor John Taylor Gilman, Captain Benjamin Mann of Mason, suggested the name Troy. His daughter, Betsy, was married to Samuel Wilson, famous as "Uncle Sam", and at that time a resident of Troy, New York. At least seven members of Wilson's family were living in the town at the time, thus securing the name. The town hall, built in 1813-1814 near the rail-fenced common, was originally the village meetinghouse.