Walpole is a town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 3,734 at the 2010 census.
The town's central settlement, where 605 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Walpole census-designated place (CDP), and is east of New Hampshire Route 12. The town also includes the villages of North Walpole and Drewsville.
The town was first granted in 1736 by Colonial Governor Jonathan Belcher of Massachusetts as Number 3, third in a line of Connecticut River fort towns. It would be settled as early as 1736, and called Great Falls or Lunenburg. Colonel Benjamin Bellows, for whom Bellows Falls, Vermont is named, built a large fort here for defense against Indian attack. After New Hampshire became a separate province, the town was regranted by Governor Benning Wentworth as Bellowstown, after its founder. It would be incorporated in 1756. The grant was renewed in 1761, when the town was renamed Walpole, in honor of Sir Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, and first Prime Minister of Great Britain.