Pioche is an unincorporated community in Lincoln County, Nevada, United States, about 180 miles northeast of Las Vegas. Its elevation is 6,060 feet (1,847 meters). Pioche is the county seat of Lincoln County. It is named after François Louis Alfred Pioche, a San Francisco financier. The town's current population is approximately 900.
The first European settlement of the area occurred in 1864 with the opening of a silver mine. Europeans abandoned when indigenous communities effectively mounted resistance to colonization. Recolonization launched in 1868, and François Pioche bought the town in 1869. By the early 1870s, it had grown to become one of the most important silver-mining towns in Nevada.
The town had a reputation for being one of the roughest towns in the Old West. Local lore says 72 men were killed in gunfights before the first natural death occurred in the camp. This legend is immortalized by the creation of Boot Hill, now a landmark in the city.