Palenville is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Greene County, New York, United States. The population was 1,037 at the 2010 census.
Palenville is in the southwest part of the Town of Catskill, located at the junction of Routes 23A and 32A. It lies at the foot of Kaaterskill Clove, nestled against the base of the Catskill Mountains. Kaaterskill Creek runs through the town, and is spanned by a locally famous swinging footbridge. The creek provides a number of swimming holes in the summer months, and the Long Path runs through the town.
Palenville was an important center of the Hudson River school of the 19th century. Thomas Cole, Frederic Church, and other notable painters stayed and worked in Palenville during the height of the movement. The famous painting Kindred Spirits depicts Cole and William Cullen Bryant near Kaaterskill Falls, just uphill from the town. The famous Catskill Mountain House was also located just outside Palenville. Palenville is the fictional home of Rip van Winkle.