Poland is a both a township and village in Mahoning County, Ohio, United States. The 2000 census found 14,711 people in the township, 11,845 of whom lived in the unincorporated portions of the township. The population of the village was 2,866 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.
In 1796, Poland Township was the first charted township in the Connecticut Western Reserve. It was settled by people from Connecticut, who were given land grants in the northeastern portion of Ohio, then known as the Connecticut Western Reserve, of which Poland Township was the southeasternmost portion, or Town One, Range One. The township was founded by Jonathan Fowler, who fell in love with Yellow Creek which flows through Poland. Fowler owned an Inn near the river which still stands as the oldest building in Poland. The historical buildings of Poland can be identified by a wooden sign in the shape of Ohio located by the front door of the building. The sign tells what the building once was.
The village of Poland was founded in 1866. Poland Seminary was originally a private secondary school, Poland Academy, and then a Liberal Arts college founded 200 years ago. Its main building has been incorporated into Poland Middle School on College Street. The former medical school and law school is now a private residence also on College Street. Its dormitory is incorporated into the Poland Public Library on Main Street. Former distinguished faculty include the author of the McGuffey Reader, William Holmes McGuffey and journalist Ida Tarbell. The future U.S. President William McKinley was once a student there.