Arlington is a city in Gilliam County, Oregon, United States. The account of how this city received its name varies: one tradition claims it was named after the lawyer Nathan Arlington Cornish; another tradition claims that the Southern inhabitants of this city had enough clout to rename the city after Arlington, Virginia, home of general Robert E. Lee. The population was 586 at the 2010 census.
Originally named Alkali, Arlington came into existence as a place for shipping cattle down the Columbia River. It was incorporated as Arlington by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on November 20, 1885.
Following the completion of the John Day Dam, the original location of Arlington was moved to higher ground in 1963 to avoid the resulting inundation.