Brownsville is a city in Linn County, Oregon, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 1,668. It is the setting for the fictional Castle Rock, Oregon in the film Stand by Me.
Brownsville was originally known as "Calapooya" after the area's original inhabitants, the Kalapuya Indians, or "Kirk's Ferry", after the ferry operated across the Calapooia River by early settlers Alexander and Sarah Kirk. When Linn County was created from the southern portion of Champoeg County on December 28, 1847, the Provisional Legislature named Calapooia as the county seat. In 1851, the Territorial Legislature passed an act establishing Albany as the county seat. A special election in 1856 reaffirmed Albany as the county seat.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km²), all of it land.