Andersonville is an unincorporated community in Anderson County, Tennessee. Beginning with the 2010 census, it is treated as a census-designated place (CDP). The CDP had a population of 472 in 2010.
Andersonville is located on Tennessee State Route 61 and is the site of a post office, which is assigned zip code 37705. Andersonville is the postal address for the area served by that zip code, which includes much of northeastern Anderson County and portions of adjacent Union County.
The community's founding family donated land for the community's first grade school, which was started in 1830. It was replaced in 1873 by Big Valley Academy, a grade school financed through stock purchases by local citizens. It was renamed Andersonville Institute in 1898, after the Clinton Baptist Association purchased the school building and added high school grades. Andersonville Institute was served by a pair of dormitories for boarding students, who comprised the majority of the high school enrollment. The Anderson County School Board assumed ownership and responsibility for the school in 1923. In 1938 Andersonville's high school students were moved to the new Norris High School in Norris and Andersonville's school became an elementary school again. The old two-story school building was torn down in 1958 and replaced by a new single-story building on the same site that reopened three years later as Andersonville Elementary School.