Yakima ( /jækɨmɔː/ or /jækɨmə/) is an American city southeast of Mount Rainier National Park and the county seat of Yakima County, Washington, United States, and the eighth largest city by population in the state itself. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 91,196 and a metropolitan population of 243,231. In addition, the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. With these cities included in the immediate area, population within 20 miles of the city is over 123,000. According to the Washington State Office of Financial Management's July 1, 2008 estimate, the city has a population of 84,074. Yakima is situated in the Yakima Valley, which is noted for being one of the best apple-producing areas in the world, a major wine region and produces approximately 75% of all hops grown in the USA. The name originates from the Yakama Nation. The Yakama Indian Reservation is located to the south and southeast of the city of Yakima.
The Yakama people were the first known inhabitants of the Yakima area, inhabiting the Yakima Valley. In 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came to the area and discovered abundant wildlife and rich soil, prompting the settlement of homesteaders. A Catholic Mission was established in Ahtanum, southwest of present-day Yakima, in 1847. The arrival of settlers and their conflicts with the natives resulted in the Yakama Indian War of 1855. The U.S. Army established Fort Simcoe in 1856 near present-day White Swan as a response to the uprising. The Yakamas were defeated and relocated to the Yakama Indian Reservation. Yakima County was created in 1865. When bypassed by the Northern Pacific Railroad in December 1884, over 100 buildings were moved with rollers and horse teams to the nearby site of the depot. The new city was dubbed North Yakima and was officially incorporated and named the county seat on January 27, 1886. The name was changed to Yakima in 1918. Union Gap was the new name given to the original site of Yakima.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.6 square miles (53.4 km²), of which, 20.1 square miles (52.1 km²) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.2 km²) of it (2.33%) is water. Yakima is 344.392 meters above mean sea level.